Landrace Cannabis Seeds

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Cannabis landraces are the original strains from which everything else descended, like Acapulco Gold, Durban Poison and Hindu Kush Deepak Chaudhary and the Indian Landrace Exchange connect indigenous farmers with modern growers in an equitable exchange. PURE CANNABIS GENETICS

Best landrace cannabis seeds for 2022

Without landraces, we wouldn’t have weed. That may sound overdramatic, but it’s true!

Cannabis landraces are the original strains from which everything else descended. Since landrace strains have a long history, they offer one-of-a-kind cultivation and smoking experiences. Indeed, for many cannabis fans, growing landrace seeds at home is a profound and memorable event.

However, you need to know how landraces differ from hybrids before planting your first batch of seeds.

What are landrace strains?

Landrace strains can be considered “wild weed,” since they grew with minimal human intervention. The general idea is that these strains have adapted to the unique environment where they are found growing in the wild. In reality, there have been a few helping hands along the way, but landraces seeds are closer to “weed’s roots” than current hybrids. 1 2

Also, unlike the cannabis hybrids of today, landrace strains are usually considered either a pure indica or sativa. If the landrace evolved in hot and humid climates like Southeast Asia, they should be 100% sativas. By contrast, strains that grew in the mountains of Iran, Pakistan, or Afghanistan will be full indicas. Since landrace strains are named after their region of origin, it makes it a bit easier to predict their general effects and growing patterns. 3

Top landrace seeds every cultivator should know

Durban Poison

  • Seed type: feminized
  • Plant height: 7 – 10 feet
  • Time to flowering: 8 – 10 weeks

Hindu Kush

  • Seed type: feminized
  • Plant height: 4 – 5 feet
  • Time to flowering: 7 – 8 weeks
  • Seed type: feminized
  • Plant height: 7 – 9 feet
  • Time to flowering: 10 – 11 weeks

Acapulco Gold

  • Seed type: feminized
  • Plant height: 4 – 6 feet
  • Time to flowering: 10 – 11 weeks

Afghani

  • Seed type: feminized
  • Plant height: 2 – 4 feet
  • Time to flowering: 7 – 8 weeks

Here’s a closer look at the best landrace seeds you can buy:

Durban Poison

  • Autoflower: no
  • Seed type: feminized
  • THC: 17.8%
  • CBD: 0.9%
  • Plant height: 7 – 10 feet
  • Time to flowering: 8 – 10 weeks
  • Terpene profile: myrcene, terpinolene, and limonene

Durban Poison may not be the “purest” landrace strain, but it’s unquestionably the most famous cannabis strain from Africa. For those who aren’t up on their geography, the first part of this strain’s name refers to a populous South African coastal city.

As the story goes, American cannabis enthusiast Ed Rosenthal preserved and refined rare African landraces that eventually became the licorice-scented Durban Poison. Since it came out in the 1970s, Durban Poison routinely ranks as one of the most significant sativa strains.

Indeed, since Durban Poison evolved in sunny regions, you should expect a no-holds-barred head-rush high. Also, home-growers should remember this earthy strain could soar well over seven feet. Be sure you have the proper training techniques in place to manage Durban Poison’s size.

Hindu Kush

  • Autoflower: no
  • Seed type: feminized
  • THC: 17.1%
  • CBD: 0.5%
  • Plant height: 4 – 5 feet
  • Time to flowering: 7 – 8 weeks Terpene profile: myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, and humulene

Hindu Kush is Mother Nature’s “OG Kush.” This spicy indica developed over centuries in its namesake mountain range. Since this strain didn’t have as much access to heat or humidity, it tends to have a quick flowering schedule and a short structure.

The flavors and effects of Hindu Kush are, well, classic Kush! Users frequently report aromas such as earth, hash, and spice as they first experience this long-hailed landrace. Since Hindu Kush is a 100% indica, you could also expect deeply relaxing effects.

  • Autoflower: no
  • Seed type: feminized
  • THC: 20%
  • CBD: ≤ 1%
  • Plant height: 7 – 9 feet
  • Time to flowering: 10 – 11 weeks
  • Terpene Profile: limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-caryophyllene

The Thai landrace is as exhilarating as a trip to brightly-lit Bangkok. Although this strain has been around since the days of Siam, it has all of the lemony, diesel aromatics you’d associate with modern Thai traffic. Also, since this strain is a full-bred sativa, it gives off tremendously stimulating effects that are perfect for early in the day.

Like other sativa landraces, Thai takes a long time to grow, and it often reaches heights of over seven feet. Cultivators need to recreate Thailand’s tropical temps and practice training techniques like LST to manage this temperamental strain.

Any fans of Haze hybrids could experience the origin of this weed family with Thai seeds.

Acapulco Gold

  • Autoflower: no
  • Seed type: feminized
  • THC: 13.7%
  • CBD: 0.1%
  • Plant height: 4 – 6 feet
  • Time to flowering: 10 – 11 weeks
  • Terpene profile: limonene, pinene, humulene, myrcene

For many cannabis fans, Acapulco Gold is considered an expensive delicacy that people should enjoy over a long session.

Nobody’s sure how this Mexican landrace developed, but it gained a ton of attention in Western nations during the 1960s. Even today, Acapulco Gold flowers are highly sought after for their unique amber hue, sativa effects, and rich caramel aromatics.

Since Acapulco Gold is such an exclusive landrace, there isn’t much info on best-growing practices. However, cultivators with a pack of Acapulco Gold seeds should treat it as a standard indica landrace.

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Afghani

  • Autoflower: no
  • Seed type: feminized
  • THC: 17%
  • CBD: 1%
  • Plant height: 2 – 4 feet
  • Time to flowering: 7 – 8 weeks Terpene profile: myrcene, alpha-pinene, and beta-caryophyllene

Along with Hindu Kush, Afghani is one of the most revered indica landrace strains. Unsurprisingly, this earthy cultivar hails from the mountain ranges of Afghanistan. Tokers who want a hash-like after-dinner smoke won’t complain about Afghani nugs.

Anyone familiar with growing and smoking Kush strains will quickly adjust to Afghani seeds. Due to its indica genetics, Afghani rarely grows above four feet and only takes about eight weeks to reach full flowering. Users often report strong sedative effects and a spicy, earthy flavor while smoking well-cured Afghani nugs.

While Afghani’s THC percentage isn’t as high as later Kush hybrids, it can still deliver a satisfying & soothing smoke.

What are the most potent landrace strains?

By now, you’ve probably heard a few tokers claim that today’s weed isn’t as tame as back in the 1960s. The primary reason for this has to do with advancements in breeding and cultivation techniques.

While feminized landraces have respectable levels of THC, they’re nowhere near as potent as cannabis hybrids being grown today. Indeed, 20th-century cultivators tinkered with landrace genetics primarily to extract more THC and create a plant more conducive to growing and selling on the illicit market. 4

For this reason, you’ll find most pure landraces have average THC at or below the teens while many hybrids have above 20% THC. Since landrace strains weren’t bred in controlled settings, they may not have the traits you’re used to in iconic hybrids. 5

Still, that doesn’t mean a few landrace strains can’t hit users hard. For those interested in the hardest-hitting effects, it’s best to look into full-bred sativa landraces such as:

Alternatively, you could go for an indica landrace strain, such as:

Are autoflowering strains landraces?

For most of weed’s history, most cultivators only concerned themselves with traditional photoperiod sesitivelandraces. However, another landrace variety has gained mainstream attention in recent months. We’re talking about the Cannabis ruderalis family.

You may be unfamiliar with the term “ruderalis,” but you’ve probably seen a few “autoflowering” strains pop up in seed shops. The reason these seeds mature without a change in light schedule has to do with their ruderalis genetics and the environment this cannabis plant grew accustomed to.

Cannabis ruderalis landraces developed in less-hospitable climates like Northern China, Mongolia, or Siberia. Due to the intense cold and erratic light patterns, these landraces evolved to grow and flower faster (in about eight weeks). And unlike the typical photoperiod sensitive cannabis plants, ruderalis does not depend as heavily on the sun to trigger normal flower maturation.

Nobody grows pure ruderalis strains because they produce very few cannabinoids and terpenes. Instead, breeders cross ruderalis genetics with their favorites indicas, sativas, or hybrids. The result of this mix is a faster-flowering (but less intense) auto strain.

Why grow landrace seeds?

Many cannabis fans love romanticizing landrace strains, but the truth is these strains often aren’t the most practical. Since true landraces grew with minimal human intervention and are adapted to a specific climate, they tend to be more demanding than hybrid strains. Also, there’s a chance that landrace seeds will produce less potent weed or smaller yields overall than hybrid rivals. 6

However, this doesn’t mean landraces don’t have a place in cannabis cultivation. These landrace strains are often more robust, pest resistant plants, having desirable characteristics like pest or mold resistance.

Indeed, many modern-day breeders still use landraces as a template for experimenting with new strain combinations and strengthening genetic lines. Also, many pot purists are passionate about preserving landrace genetics to ensure the future diversity of cannabis. 7

Anyone interested in growing cannabis landraces at home should start with indica strains like Hindu Kush or Afghani. Due to their history in more rugged terrain, these landraces are more forgiving in indoor set-ups. Plus, indica landraces take less time to flower and don’t grow as tall.

As you gain more experience with sativa hybrids, you could consider moving to 100% sativa landraces. Just keep in mind strains like Durban Poison and Thai grow incredibly tall, take longer to reach flowering.

Lastly, always double-check your landrace seeds are coming from a reputable cannabis vendor. To increase the odds you’re getting a 100% landrace genotype, you need to buy from a company with a “high” reputation.

Grow landrace cannabis strains with ‘fair trade’ seeds from the source

With so much attention paid to America’s push toward legalization, it’s easy to lose sight of the fact that cannabis cultivation—and cannabis culture—date back thousands of years.

Throughout India and Southeast Asia, indigenous farmers continue to grow cannabis and make hashish using methods passed down for untold generations. Despite a boom in demand and a global push to end prohibition, these traditional cannabis production communities continue to struggle economically, as changes in climate and encroaching tourism and development threaten their existence.

And now they find their unique landrace cannabis genetics under threat. Many of these storied lineages date back farther than the oldest wine grape varietals. These landrace cannabis strains may also hold the genetic building blocks for breeding the next generation of game-changing hybrid strains.

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Ancient Himalayan strains, grown at the source

This cannabis landrace strain is grown by indigenous farmers in Himalayan valley villages within the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. The region was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988. (Photo courtesy of Indian Landrace Exchange)

Find, support, and defend landrace strains

Attempts to locate, preserve, and proliferate these strains date back decades. But most such efforts have been led by geographic and cultural outsiders, often driven more by profits than preservation.

Over the past five years a grassroots, locally-led, globally crowdsourced effort has emerged to help defend and support these local cannabis-growing communities. The Indian Landrace Exchange describes itself as a “collective of Indigenous frontline farmers, seed collectors, and preservationists” with the goal of supporting these communities economically while helping spread and preserve their landrace strains.

Grown locally, harvested by hand

Landrace seeds are harvested by hand in the local villages where the plants grow. (Photo courtesy Indian Landrace Exchange)

Indian Landrace Exchange steps in

To learn more, Leafly spoke with Deepak Chaudhary (@irrazinig), the cannabis landrace conservationist who helped found the Indian Landrace Exchange and continues to coordinate the group’s efforts.

Leafly: When did you first become interested in cannabis?

Deepak Chaudhary: When I first started consuming cannabis, I was smoking hashish that was not always good. So I had fun, but it didn’t entice me to really dig deeper into this plant. It wasn’t until I entered college that I had a little more exposure because I met people from different regions with different cultures and experiences.

I started smoking with people from Himachal Pradesh, which is a Highland region. And I was like, “Okay, I want to go wherever this resin [hashish] comes from.” That was the inspiration that eventually led to the Indian Landrace Exchange.

Genetics and flower unique to the region

This is an example of the incredibly colorful strains offered by the Indian Landrace Exchange. (Photo and text via indianlandraceexchange.com/genetic-library/)

Leafly: Where did you go first?

Chaudhary: In 2016, I went to Malana, which is the Mecca of cannabis in India. It’s almost like a religious pilgrimage. There, for the first time, I saw indigenous people using very traditional techniques to maintain their crops and domesticate them. From planting to harvesting to making concentrates and getting them to customers, the whole process was just so raw.

As I learned more about these communities, I began to think we should be documenting and preserving this way of life because these remote regions are changing rapidly. Every year you see more tourism, more houses, more shops, and less cannabis.

“When I visited the village, the plants were fully flowered. The smell was thick in the air everywhere.”

Deepak Chaudhary, Indian Landrace Exchange founder

The first time I visited, it was October. The plants were fully flowered. When I reached the village, the smell was thick in the air everywhere. There was no escape from it, and that’s so beautiful. It’s something that leaves a very deep imprint on you. At harvest time, you also see a lot of people sitting on their porches rubbing down the plants to make hashish, which is basically the crudest form of extraction. But while hand rubbing may sound very simple, there are actually a lot of details. There’s a real art to it.

Technically in India cannabis is not permitted, but in Malana there’s not much law imposed. The nearest police station is 12 miles away, and to drive that road takes three hours. Those police are also from the same area, so basically they understand that these people are not committing any violent crime or anything like that. They’re farmers who just happen to have a different choice of crop and are mostly left alone. So the environment of the village is super peaceful.

Being there made me want to visit all of these kinds of places, meet the people, try to understand their culture, and then educate others about it. That includes the challenges they face, and how the landrace varieties of cannabis they grow are endangered.

I went next to Kashmir, and eventually to Southeast Asia and Pakistan. Now we have a network of friends and communities of farmers in all of these places. That’s how the Indian Landrace Exchange developed in an organic way into a grassroots effort of close to a hundred people that has taken on a life of its own.

How sticky is that ancient local bud?

Members of the Indian Landrace Exchange show off their “hash hands,” with the sticky resin from handling landrace strain cannabis plants in the field. (Photo courtesy of Indian Landrace Exchange)

Leafly: What does the Indian Landrace Exchange do to help these farmers?

Chaudhary: We became a bridge between the indigenous world and the world of legal cannabis.

For people in this newly legal industry, there’s a whole galaxy of possibilities in terms of finances. But that’s not true for people in traditional cannabis habitats—even though they’re doing most of the work.

When these indigenous farmers want to sell their resin, they can’t go make deals on their own. They have to relinquish it all to organized, underground groups that control the distribution to major markets, where they can get a good price for it. Some part of that wholesale price flows back to the growers, but not enough.

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No matter what indigenous community you visit, they’re all struggling—despite how much they’re growing. But if we can help preserve their landrace genetics, while also helping them sell seeds to people all over the world, that changes the dynamic.

Tall, stalky cannabis in Kashmir

Cannabis growing beside the Jhelum River in Kashmir, the disputed territory between India and Pakistan. (Photo courtesy of Indian Landrace Exchange)

Leafly: And these seeds are the “landraces,” right? What does that term mean when it comes to cannabis?

Chaudhary: A cannabis varietal which has adapted to one specific locale over time could be classified as a landrace cannabis variety, although there are many different ways to further sub-categorize it depending on how it has been developed. By mapping the genome of plants grown in indigenous communities, we have been able to prove these are unique native varietals dating back thousands of years.

“Our first priority is preservation. Then we make sure a fair share of the revenue generated by selling these seeds goes to the farmers.”

Deepak Chaudhary, Indian Landrace Exchange

Our first priority has always been preservation. Then we make sure a fair share of the revenue generated by selling these seeds goes back to those farmers. Some people will go to these indigenous people and pay them $1,000 for a million seeds. That’s a lot of money in those communities—but they’re also doing the same colonialist thing that’s been happening forever.

What we do is create small collectives amongst the indigenous farmers. I tell them, “Every year we’ll come back and take some samples from each of your fields.” And then I show them all my costs and incomes and explain that their unique landrace genetics are even more valuable than the resin they produce.

That’s sometimes very hard for them to fathom, until I start paying them more money than they’ve been making off the resin. And what that does is not only help financially liberate people, it also assures them that—should anything happen to their crops—they must still save these seeds. Because as long as you have the seeds, you have everything.

Final product: Old-school hashish

Traditionally dry-sifted trichomes and baked hashish from South Kashmir. (Photo courtesy Indian Landrace Exchange)

Leafly: What’s a good example of how this changes the dynamic for farmers?

Chaudhary: In the town of Mastung, in Pakistan’s province of Balochistan, we worked with a grower who had a water crisis in a dry place where you have to dig a thousand feet down to reach ground water. That costs a lot of money. So we arranged a couple of seed sales—while preserving and documenting his genetics—and that earned him enough revenue to pay for digging a well. It’s not something that’s going to transform someone’s entire life, but it’s significant. We try to do things like that wherever we go.

Packaged cannabis seeds like these can be found at local markets in remote regions of India and Pakistan. (Courtesy of Indian Landrace Exchange)

Leafly: How are seeds made available to growers in Europe and North America?

Chaudhary: All of the information we have about the genetics we collect and preserve is available free on our website. From there, I basically work with a few selected seed banks, which you can find on my Instagram page.

Whether you’re an American grower or a European grower, my first suggestion would be to visit my Instagram feed and educate yourself about different genetics from different regions. We also document all of the tours we take so you can match each of these landraces to the community where it grows. It’s important to find one that will grow well in the climate where you live, so we make that information available as well.

Landrace Cannabis Seeds

Our intention is to preserve, reproduce and distribute the finest examples from around the world, from sativas to indicas. We want to pass on these pure “foundation strains” so as to not lose them forever in a world dominated by hybridized and feminized cannabis varieties.

Today’s cannabis has been mixed to the extent that many have lost their original mystic and power, giving way to the unnatural demands of today’s grower. These modern day strains get nowhere near the purity and clarity of their ancestral families as all of the original “power phenos” are lost within the process of cross breeding.

Furthermore these new strains require a lot of nutrients that are derived from the carbon fossil world adding on to the depleting of Mother Nature. Our mission is to bring all these amazing strains back to the forefront of the cannabis community! Saving the future of cannabis by preserving its past.

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