What Is CBD Oil? Is CBD Legal for Cats? What Effects Does CBD Have on a Cat? Are There Any Negative Side Effects for Cats? How Can I Get a Hold of CBD Oil? Is CBD the Right Option for My Cat? If you have never seen what a seizure looks like, you may be terrified to witness your cat having one. They aren’t easy to watch Can CBD help with seizures & epilepsy in cats? Seizures are common nervous system disorders in cats, affecting 1% to 3% of the general feline population.
CBD Oil for Seizures & Epilepsy in Cats
If you have never seen what a seizure looks like, you may be terrified to witness your cat having one. They aren’t easy to watch because you can’t do much for them except keep them from hurting themselves.
What you can do is protect them from the dangers around them. Move them away from potential hazards like stairwells or drop-offs and keep their head away from furniture or rocks that could harm them. After you do this, it’s just a matter of waiting for the seizure to pass.
If your cat suffers from seizures and epilepsy, a suitable alternative that may help manage them is CBD oil. It’s worth looking into as it has the potential to help your furry friend.
What Is CBD Oil?
CBD is the acronym used for cannabidiol. While other cannabinoids may be present in several types of plants all over the world, CBD is unique in that it is only found in cannabis and accounts for up to 40% of the plant extract. Therefore, being a cannabinoid has nothing to do with whether it derives from marijuana; it depends on the molecular structure.
CBD oil derives from hemp. The reason is that hemp has the least concentrations of THC (the cannabinoid that marijuana is famous for as it causes you to feel the head high). THC, however, is toxic to animals such as dogs and cats. Therefore, hemp-derived CBD is preferable for two reasons.
Is CBD Legal for Cats?
As mentioned above, when CBD derives from hemp, it is low in THC and perfectly legal. You need to ensure you are buying CBD extracted from hemp, as it can come from marijuana
as well. This type should only be for sale in a legal marijuana dispensary in a state that has legalized medical marijuana. It will not be safe for pets, however.
What Effects Does CBD Have on a Cat?
CBD can trigger the body’s Endocannabinoid System (ECS) to work more efficiently. The process improves the body’s response to pain, tremors, appetite, metabolism, and more.
The ECS is responsible for bringing balance back to the body. Its primary job is to maintain the status of homeostasis within the body. Homeostasis improves the efficiency of every body system, with the ECS working as a “supervisor” for these systems. All mammals have an ECS, and scientists believe it is the most critical system of the body.
We have only known about the ECS since the 1990s, and researchers are still learning much
about it. Many people have never heard of it because information about the ECS didn’t exist when we were in school.
Are There Any Negative Side Effects for Cats?
If your cat is rubbing their head, they may have a headache. The most common of the three is diarrhea. If you notice it, reduce the amount of CBD you’re giving your cat or skip a dose entirely. Reducing or stopping treatment will typically mitigate the problem.
Reduce the amount of the doses going forward until they’ve had a chance to adjust. CBD is not addictive. There have been very few reports of side-effects, and they have never been life-threatening. The worst side-effects may be extreme tiredness, diarrhea, or headaches. You do not need to have any concerns about your cat getting high from using CBD. It will not impair their ability to function normally. Nor will it cause them to have any issues with dependency.
How Can I Get a Hold of CBD Oil?
CBD is available in many places, especially on the internet. Please, do some research to learn the difference between a quality CBD oil and one that may be questionable. It’s also essential that you speak to your veterinarian and keep them in the loop when it comes to decisions about your cat’s care. They should agree with whatever you decide to do and know about it.
Is CBD the Right Option for My Cat?
It’s important to understand that CBD is not a cure. It is an excellent tool for managing many different conditions, such as epilepsy and seizure conditions. Whether it’s the best option for your furry friend, is something only you can answer. CBD may be the right choice for your cat, but only you can determine that. It requires you to do a fair amount of research and learn the pros and cons. You should understand the general way in which it works within the body, and you should prepare for the good and the bad.
You must run it by your veterinarian, especially if your cat is already taking other medications. CBD can be a natural blood thinner, and this means that it could interact with other medicines that also thin the blood. Your veterinarian will be able to inform you properly, as will your own research.
Dr. Ivana Vukasinovic
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade
Ivana Vukasinovic grew up in Serbia and attended the University of Belgrade where she received a degree in Veterinary medicine in 2012 and later completed surgical residency working mostly with livestock. Her first year of practice was split between busy small animal practice and emergency clinic, and after two more years of treating many different species of animals, she opened her own veterinary pharmacy where an interest in canine and feline nutrition emerged with an accent on fighting animal obesity. In her free time, she acts as a foster parent for stray animals before their adoption, likes to read SF books and making salted caramel cookies.
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The Innovet Team
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CBD for Seizures in Cats – August 2022
Why Cat Owners Are Turning to CBD Oil for Seizures in Cats
Studies have shown that CBD’s potential health benefits may be useful in treating a range of medical conditions. These conditions include chronic pain , anxiety , inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), and cancer (6 ) .
In 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved Epidiolex, a CBD medication, for treating seizures linked to Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes.
Epidiolex was the first drug to be approved by the FDA for the condition (7 ) .
The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 (AMDUCA) allows the extra-label (off-label) use of human drugs in animals (8 ) .
Meanwhile, the FDA has not restricted the use of Epidiolex in veterinary medicine.
Still, before giving Epidiolex or any drugs to cats, owners must always consult with a veterinarian for advice first.
In a 2019 study, researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine showed that CBD might alleviate seizures and normalize brain rhythms in Angelman syndrome (9 ) .
Angelman syndrome is a rare condition affecting the development of the nervous system.
The study was done on mice. However, given that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in all mammals work in similar ways (10 ) , CBD’s purported therapeutic effects may also work in cats with seizures.
The ECS, a system of cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in the body, regulates body functions to maintain homeostasis (balance).
Seizures are among the common neurologic problems (nervous system disorders) in cats, affecting 1% to 3% of the general feline population (11 ) .
Seizures and epilepsy are not the same medical problems.
Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures (12 ) . An epilepsy diagnosis needs at least two unprovoked seizures (13 ) .
An epileptic seizure in itself is not a disease but a sign of an abnormal brain function (14 ) .
Seizure characteristics in cats may be different than what is observed in dogs. However, the underlying causes of seizure activity are similar (15 ) .
Unfortunately, information on the causes and options for the treatment of seizures in cats is limited in the veterinary medical literature.
Thus, recommendations for the diagnosis and management of feline seizure disorders have been based on scientific data on canines and humans (16 ) .
CBD for Seizures: What the Research Says
CBD has shown its anticonvulsant properties in animal models and reduced seizure frequency in limited human studies .
In one study, for example, the researchers noted the antiepileptic and antiseizure potential of CBD in generalized seizures (17 ) .
Generalized seizures impact both sides of the brain and often lead to a loss of consciousness.
Another study had similar results. In the study, CBD reduced the percentage of animal subjects that were experiencing severe tonic-clonic seizures (18 ) .
Tonic-clonic (also called grand mal) seizures have two stages. First, there is a loss of consciousness, which can last for 10 to 20 seconds. Then, muscle convulsions that usually last for one to two minutes follow (19 ) .
The results of the study also demonstrate the anticonvulsant characteristics of CBD. The evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic prospect for different types of human epilepsies (20 ) .
Researchers of a 2017 study believe that, compared with THC, CBD shows a more defined anticonvulsant profile in animal models (21 ) .
The results indicate that CBD may be effective against focal and generalized seizures.
There are no studies that specifically examine the effects of CBD use in cats with seizures. The limited studies on seizures and epilepsy were mostly conducted using human subjects and animal models.
Still, the potential therapeutic benefits of CBD use in cats may also be comparable due to the similar ways the ECS works in all mammals.
How CBD Works to Help With Seizures in Cats
CBD interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) through the cannabinoid receptors. The two primary types of receptors are CB1 and CB2.
In cats, CB1 receptors are prevalent in the brain and nervous system. Meanwhile, the CB2 receptors are dominant in the peripheral organs (including the endocrine system organs) and immune cells.
CB1 receptors are involved in motor regulation, pain sensation, memory processing, sleep , appetite, and mood (22 ) .
When activated by cannabinoids, CB2 receptors trigger a response that fights inflammation, which decreases pain and damage to tissues (23 ) .
The antiseizure activities of CBD and cannabidivarin (CBDV), both antiepileptic cannabinoids, may be influenced by their effects on TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a pain receptor.
TRPV1 is present in epileptic brain areas. Studies show that the inhibition of TRPV1 in the hippocampus may be a new target for the prevention of epileptic seizures (24 ) .
The Pros and Cons of CBD for Cats
- Epidiolex, a CBD medication for the treatment of seizures linked to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, is FDA-approved in humans. However, before using human drugs in cats, owners should consult with a veterinarian first for advice.
- CBD is not addictive (25 ) , making it safe for cats when given in veterinarian-approved doses.
- Hemp-derived CBD products are readily available without a prescription in many countries. CBD cat products may come in different forms, such as tinctures or drops, CBD treats (soft chews or bites), capsules, and salves.
- The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has not received reports of adverse events associated with animals given cannabis products (26 ) . The only reports received were of accidental ingestion of cannabis by pets.
- No extensive studies have been conducted explicitly on CBD’s health benefits or therapeutic use in cats with seizures. Neither are there reports of CBD’s effects of long-term use on cats.
- The FDA has not approved any cannabis products for use in animals. Before using CBD in pets, like cats and dogs, consult with a veterinarian to explore different treatment options (27 ) .
- The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) still categorizes CBD under Schedule I (28 ) Substances belonging to this group have no accepted medicinal use but a high potential for abuse (29 )
- Except in California, veterinarians do not have the legal authority to discuss cannabis use with clients (30 ) . Cat owners need to take the initiative during consultations and ask questions.
- CBD may cause adverse drug interactions with other prescription medicines concurrently taken by a cat. The side effects of CBD include fatigue, diarrhea, dry mouth, and reduced appetite (31 )
How CBD Compares to Alternative Treatments for Seizures in Cats
A study published in the British Journal of Nutrition showed how a ketogenic diet rich in medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAG) achieved levels of ketosis that were useful in preventing seizures in dogs with epilepsy (32 ) .
The keto diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. The MC TAG are fatty acids that help with ketosis, where the body burns stored fat for energy instead of blood sugar.
The dogs were fed with either MC TAG diet or placebo for three months, after which a respective switch of diet was done for another three months .
Results showed that seizure frequency and monthly seizure days were significantly lower in the 21 dogs that finished the 12 weeks compared to those on the placebo diet (33 ) .
Natural remedies, like a change in diet, are preferable to cat owners who want to avoid the adverse side effects of conventional prescription drugs for seizures.
Some herbal remedies, like passion flower, skullcap, and ginger, may also help reduce the occurrence of seizures.
Passion flower is used to treat insomnia, anxiety, and seizures (34 ) . It is known to calm overactive nervous systems that often result in seizures.
The flavonoids that are naturally present in skullcap may be the active ingredients contributing to the anticonvulsant effects (35 ) .
Like skullcap, ginger also has anticonvulsant properties, according to researchers of a study conducted on mice (36 ) .
The studies mentioned above were not done on cats. However, given that the ECS in mammals works in similar ways, the herbal remedies mentioned might also work in cats with seizures.
Meanwhile, CBD in itself is a hemp plant extract that may also help with seizures.
A study lists cannabis as one of the most common herbal medicines used in epilepsy (37 ) . The antiepileptic ingredients of cannabis include CBD (38 ) .
Recent studies have confirmed CBD that it possesses antiepileptic and anticonvulsant effects (39 ) .
There are CBD products infused with passion flowers, skullcap, or ginger that are meant to help calm pets.
The powerful combination of CBD benefits and the therapeutic characteristics of these herbs would be beneficial for seizures in cats.
How to Choose the Best CBD Oil Products for Cats
CBD oil is a potent Cannabis Sativa extract which may be derived from either hemp or marijuana (also called cannabis).
CBD extracts come in different forms or types of oil. Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all of the cannabinoids, essential vitamins, fatty acids (like omega-3 and omega-6), terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds naturally present in cannabis.
Terpenes are the compounds naturally found in cannabis plants that give the plants their unique aromas and flavors. Flavonoids give plants their vivid colors.
Broad-spectrum CBD oils are full-spectrum oils without the THC content.
Broad-spectrum oils contain only trace amounts of THC (less than 0.3%), making them ideal for those who do not want THC’s psychoactive effects.
Meanwhile, CBD isolates contain only pure CBD. It is the purest and most potent form of CBD.
Whatever type of oil pet owners prefer to use, they should choose only high-quality CBD products for their feline friends to ensure potency and reliability.
Below are useful tips for cat owners looking to buy and try CBD for their cat.
- Choose hemp-derived pet CBD oil that is guaranteed all-natural, organic, and non-GMO.
Note that most reputable CBD brands grow their hemp from their farms or source their hemp only from licensed producers.
- Check state laws in the area where CBD is going to be bought and used. While medical cannabis (medical marijuana) is legal in many states, it remains illegal at the federal level.
Meanwhile, CBD is legally available in most states in the USA as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC.
- Look for CBD cat products produced by brands that use the CO2 extraction technique.
The CO2 method uses pressurized carbon dioxide to effectively and safely extract all the essential compounds from hemp plants.
- Ensure that the CBD hemp oil brand uses all-natural carrier oils. Hemp seed oil, MCT oil (medium-chain triglycerides from coconut oil), and extra-virgin olive oil are natural carrier oils that also have their therapeutic properties.
- Ask for third-party lab results, or the certificate of analysis (COA), of each CBD product.
The COA lists all the other active cannabinoids present in a product. The certificate also indicates whether or not the product contains other additives, preservatives, or contaminants, like fungicides and herbicides.
- Follow the manufacturer’s dosing instructions, as printed on each product label. More importantly, before administering CBD to cats, consult with a veterinarian for guidance and advice.
CBD Oil Dosage for Seizures in Cats
CBD dosing largely depends on the cat’s body weight, diet, health condition, and age. Unfortunately, there has not been any standard dose recommended for any medical conditions in both humans and animals.
Also, different cat CBD oil brands recommend different dosing guidelines. Meanwhile, m ost manufacturers of CBD pet products give dose values in ranges.
Holistapet , for example, has its vet-approved CBD dosing guidelines for cats and dogs. The company recommends between 0.25 mg of CBD (a regular dose) to 0.5 mg of CBD (a strong dose) for each pound of pet body weight (40 ) .
The regular dose is recommended for maintaining health and wellness and boosting immune system function. This dose is supposed to help with skin conditions and appetite and provide pain relief.
The regular dose is also ideal for minor stress and anxiety, digestive issues and nausea, moderate arthritis and joint inflammation, and allergies.
On the other hand, the strong dose is useful in chronic pain, severe arthritis and joint inflammation, mobility issues, and epileptic seizures
The strong dose is also recommended for extreme nausea, vomiting, severe anxiety, tumors, and cancer-related symptoms.
Other manufacturers recommend 1 to 5 mg of CBD for every 10 lbs of a cat’s body weight.
However, when introducing CBD oils into a cat’s diet, being conservative by underdosing may be a wise approach.
From a low dose, gradually increase the amount of CBD until the desired effects are achieved.
In the case of seizures in cats, increase the amount of CBD oil in gradual increments until it shows a positive reaction to the dose.
A positive reaction could mean that the next seizures may be not as severe or as frequent as the previous ones.
A journal or a record of the cat’s seizures and their characteristics is a useful tool for veterinarians in assessing the cat’s progress.
How CBD Oil Can Be Given to Cats
CBD oil tinctures or drops come in a bottle with a dropper, allowing for accurate dosing. Cat owners can slowly introduce CBD, drop by drop, into their cat’s diet with tinctures.
Tinctures can also be administered under the cat’s tongue (sublingually), or by applying it onto its gums with a fingertip.
Aside from giving CBD cat treats, sprinkling the CBD capsules’ contents onto the cat’s food and drink is another way of giving CBD to cats orally.
Meanwhile, there are CBD topicals, like balms, salves, and tinctures may also help. CBD topicals may be applied transdermally to the cat’s bare skin inside its ears, or on its paws to lick.
Cats can reap the benefits of CBD oil through massage. Massaging these CBD-infused products onto a cat’s body provides calming effects and promotes optimal body function.
An article by the American Veterinary Medical Association says there is a lack of consistency in epilepsy research on classifications, definitions, and therapeutic outcomes (41 ) .
Thus, a task force was organized, made up of 26 veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, and other specialists from around the world.
It was the first time that many veterinary clinicians and neuroscientists have formally agreed on the salient aspects of epilepsy in dogs and cats.
Any breed of dog or cat can have seizures and develop epilepsy. According to Ned Patterson, DVM, Ph.D., DACVIM (SAIM), the task force would work on consensus statements on the emergency treatment of seizures (42 ) .
Dr. Patterson of the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine focuses on seizure disorders, genetics, and molecular medicine.
CBD has demonstrated its therapeutic potential in several human and animal studies. However, there are still not enough scientific studies on CBD and seizures in cats.
Until more research has been done showing that the use of CBD is effective in managing seizures in cats, cat owners should use CBD with caution.
Whether using CBD for pain management or reduction of severity and frequency of seizures, any action towards CBD administration and dosing should be under the supervision of a veterinarian experienced in cannabis or CBD use.